ਵੈਬਸਾਈਟ ਦਾ ਮੁੱਖ ਉਦੇਸ਼
ਕਿਸੇ ਕੌਮ ਜਾਂ ਦੇਸ਼ ਦੀ ਮਹਾਨਤਾ ਲਈ ਤਿੰਨ ਚੀਜਾਂ ਬੜੀਆਂ ਮਹੱਤਵਪੂਰਣ ਹੁੰਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ, ਇਕ ਉਸਦਾ ਇਤਿਹਾਸ, ਦੂਜਾ ਸੱਭਿਆਚਾਰ ਅਤੇ ਤੀਜਾ ਉਸਦੀ ਮਾਤਰੀ ਬੋਲੀ ਤੇ ਸਾਹਿਤ । ਉਪਰੋਕਤ ਤਿੰਨੋਂ ਚੀਜਾਂ ਕਾਰਣ ਹੀ ਕਿਸੇ ਕੌਮ ਦੀ ਵਿਸ਼ਵ ਪੱਧਰ ਤੇ ਵੱਖਰੀ ਪਛਾਣ ਕਾਇਮ ਰਹਿੰਦੀ ਹੈ । ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ ਸਿਰਮੌਰ ਵਿਦਵਾਨ ਭਾਈ ਕਾਨ੍ਹ ਸਿੰਘ ਨਾਭਾ (30 ਅਗਸਤ 1861 -23 ਨਵੰਬਰ 1938) ਆਪਣੇ ਅਦੁੱਤੀ ਯੋਗਦਾਨ ਸਦਕਾ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦੇ ਸੱਭਿਆਚਾਰਕ ਇਤਿਹਾਸ ਵਿੱਚ ਵਿਸ਼ੇਸ਼ ਸਥਾਨ ਰੱਖਦੇ ਹਨ । ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਵਿੱਚ ਉਹ ਵਿਸ਼ਵਕੋਸ਼ੀ ਗਿਆਨਧਾਰਾ ਦੇ ਪ੍ਰਮੁੱਖ ਤੇ ਮੋਢੀ ਅਚਾਰੀਆ ਹਨ । ਮਹਾਨ ਕੋਸ਼ ਸਮੇਤ ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਦੀਆਂ ਕਈ ਦਰਜਨਾਂ ਪੁਸਤਕਾਂ ਦੀ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਣਿਕਤਾ ਉਚਕੋਟੀ ਦੇ ਪੱਧਰ ਦੀ ਧਾਰਨੀ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਦਿੱਤੀ ਜਾਣਕਾਰੀ ਸੰਦੇਹ ਰਹਿਤ ਹੈ । ਹਰੀ ਵ੍ਰਿਜੇਸ਼ ਕਲਚਰਲ ਫਾਊਂਡੇਸ਼ਨ ਵੱਲੋਂ ਤਿਆਰ ਕੀਤੀ ਵੈਬਸਾਈਟ http://hvcfoundation.com
ਦਾ ਮੁੱਖ ਮਕਸਦ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਵਰਗੀ ਵਿਦਵਤਾ ਅਤੇ ਵਿਚਾਰਾਂ ਦੀ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਣਿਕਤਾ ਦੀ ਗਿਆਨਧਾਰਾ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ ਵਿਦਵਾਨ ਜਗਤ ਵਿੱਚ ਨਿਰੰਤਰ ਵਿਕਾਸ ਕਰਦੀ ਰਹੇ, ਅਤੇ ਨਾਲ ਹੀ ਵਿਸ਼ਵ ਦੇ ਕੋਨੇ-ਕੋਨੇ ਵਿੱਚ ਬੈਠੇ ਸਮੂੰਹ ਪੰਜਾਬੀਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਖਾਸ ਕਰ ਇੰਟਰਨੈਟ ਨਾਲ ਜੁੜੀ ਨਵੀਂ ਪਨੀਰੀ ਨੂੰ ਆਪਣੇ ਅਮੀਰ ਵਿਰਸੇ ਨਾਲ ਜੋੜਿਆ ਜਾਵੇ ।ਇਸ ਵੈਬਸਾਈਟ ‘ਚ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, ਉਰਦੂ, ਹਿੰਦੀ-ਅੰਗਰੇਜੀ ਆਦਿ ਭਾਸ਼ਾਵਾਂ ਤੋਂ ਇਲਾਵਾ ਆਡੀਓ- ਵੀਡੀਓ ਸਾਧਨਾਂ ਰਾਹੀਂ ਤੇ ਰੇਡੀਓ-ਟੀਵੀ ਦੇ ਪ੍ਰੋਗਰਾਮਾ ਰਾਹੀਂ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ ਮਹਾਨ ਵਿਦਵਾਨ ਭਾਈ ਕਾਨ੍ਹ ਸਿੰਘ ਨਾਭਾ ਦੇ ਸਮੂਚੇ ਕਾਰਜ ਬਾਰੇ ਜਾਣਕਾਰੀ ਦੇਣ ਲਈ ਇੱਕ ਛੋਟਾ ਜਿਹਾ ਉਪਰਾਲਾ ਆਰੰਭਿਆ ਹੈ, ਤਾਂ ਜੋ ਅੱਜ ਦੇ ਵਿਸ਼ਵੀਕਰਣ ਦੇ ਦੌਰ ‘ਚ ਅੰਤਰਰਾਸ਼ਟਰੀ ਭਾਈਚਾਰੇ ਨੂੰ ਦਸਿਆ ਜਾ ਸਕੇ ਕਿ ਜੇਕਰ ਜੰਗ ਦੇ ਖੇਤਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਪੰਜਾਬੀਆਂ ਦੀ ਬਹਾਦਰੀ ਪਹਿਲੇ ਨੰਬਰ ਤੇ ਆਉਂਦੀ ਹੈ, ਤਾਂ ਸਾਹਿਤੱਕ ਖੇਤਰ ‘ਚ ਵੀ ਉਹ ਕਿਸੇ ਤੋਂ ਪਿੱਛੇ ਨਹੀਂ । ਐਚਵੀਸੀਫਾਉਂਡੇਸ਼ਨ ਵੱਲੋਂ ਸਮੂੰਹ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਪ੍ਰੇਮੀ ਅਤੇ ਵਿਦਿਆ ਪ੍ਰੇਮੀਆਂ ਦਾ ਭਰਪੂਰ ਸੁਆਗਤ ਹੈ । ਇਸ ਵੈਬਸਾਈਟ ਨੂੰ ਬਿਹਤਰ ਬਣਾਉਣ ਲਈ ਆਪ ਸਭਨਾਂ ਦੇ ਵਡਮੁੱਲੇ ਸੁਝਾਅ ਤੇ ਰਾਵਾਂ ਦਾ ਸਾਨੂੰ ਹਮੇਸ਼ਾ ਇੰਤਜਾਰ ਰਹੇਗਾ ।
-Ravinder Kaur Ravi, (Punjabi University Patiala)
Coordinator, HVC Foundation
BHAI KAHAN SINGH, NABHA
(30th August 1861 to 23rd November 1938)
Many scholars have tried to explain and interpret the inner meanings of Gurbani
but after Bhai Gurdas if anyone has truly understood and interpreted the Gurbani
to its nearest meanings, he is none else than the author of Encyclopedia of Sikhism
(Mahan Kosh), Bhai Kahan Singh of Nabha. He was a shining star in the firmament
of learning and religious thought. He was a leading and supreme authority of his
He was born on 30 August 1861. His father Baba Narain Singh was a saintly person
who regularly recited the Guru Granth Sahib four times a month. Thrice in his life
he recited the Guru Granth Sahib in one sitting. Once Maharaja Hira Singh of Nabha
sat with him to listen to the Akhand Path recitation. As a mark of respect, Maharaja
Hira Singh, on that occasion became one of Baba Narain Singh's palanquin bearers.
Literally speaking Bhai Kahan Singh, was a true patriot. He was equally impressed
by traditional Indian values as well as modern traditions. He alone has done so
much literary work which is not even possible for an institution comprising eminent
men of scholarship and learning. He was a preeminent genius of Punjabi literature,
interpreter and a keen researcher of Gurbani, lexicographer, translator, linguist,
master of poetry and an efficient editor. He did not attend any School or University
but learned Sanskrit, Persian, Gurmat Poetry, History, Law, Hindu Philosophy (Vedant)
from Scholars, Pandits and Maulvis, music from a famous maestro of Nabha State and
the use of weapons from Nihangs. He was an excellent marksman and was very fond
of hunting and shooting.
Bhai Kahan Singh served Nabha State from 1880-1912 and from 1917 -1923 in various
important positions as Private Secretary, City Magistrate, Nazam (Deputy Commissioner),
Mir / Munshi, Nehar Nazam, Foreign Minister, Judge of the High Court and member
of Judicial Council etc. From 1915-1917 he served as a lawyer of the "Political
Agency" of Patiala State. Renowned literary personality Mr. Max Arthur Macauliffe,
Maharaja Ripudaman Singh of Nabha and his wife Maharani Sarojini Devi were Bhai
Bhai Kahan Singh first met Mr. Macauliffe in Rawalpindi where he had gone with Maharaja
Hira Singh. Macauliffe got permission from the Maharaja to allow Bhai Sahib to expose
him to Sikh religion and Gurbani. He stayed back there for three months. Subsequently,
Macauliffe spent many winters in Nabha and summers in hill stations with Bhai Sahib
to study Sikh Religion and Sikh history and, of course, Gurmukhi. i'v1acduiiffe's
Book, 'The Sikh religion' was published by the Oxford University Press in 1907 in
London. Bhai Kahan Singh's contribution was acknowledged when Macauliffe who was
a bachelor, transferred the copyright of the book to Bhai Kahan Singh. He had also
offered one of his houses in England (10 Sanclaire Road, London) to him, an offer
which was politely declined.
'Hum Hindu Nahin' (We are not Hindus) was written to serve a specific purpose. First
published in 1898, this small volume was an early contribution to a current controversy
concerning the actual identity of Sikhs. An earlier legal ruling, had declared Sikhs
to be Hindus. The title of Bhai Kahan Singh's response makes his own view point
abundantly clear. It represented the dominant stand point of the Singh Sabha movement
and has ever since retained the fame, which it had so quietly acquired. It is worth
stressing that the approach adopted in this hook is neither hostile nor aggressive.
In the polemic, he took care to stress that he sought peace, not discord.
Dr. J.S. Grewal, in his recently published book, Historical Aspects of Sikh Identity
has recorded that Bhai Kahan Singh wrote this book responding to what he perceived
as a threat to the tradition which he cherished. He was not alone. He represented
the view and feelings of an increasing number of Sikhs who prized the Sikh tradition.
In this process, two things from the pristine Sikh tradition were bought to the
fore; tl13 Guru Granth as the preferred Sikh Identity. Neither the doctrine of Guru
Granth liar the Singh Identity was new, What was new was the emphasis laid on both.
Dr. Grewal concludes by saying that a serious concern for preserving the Sikh tradition
may now appear to be obvious, but this dimension has been generally overlooked in
explanations which focus on the mundane interests of a rising middle class.
Gurmat Martand, a two volume set, giving out the complete Sikh Maryada was published
in 1938, Its contribution in terms of definitions, exegesis on standard text, makes
it an exceedingly useful volume. It also needs to be emphasized that this volume
lists rituals and ceremony that are performed from the 'cradle to the coffin', It
is marked by research and erudition, and there is a perennial need to refer to it
to clear doubts and self created distortions. It should be translated into English
and other languages for the benefit of Sikhs, both at home and abroad. In this context,
one has to observe with considerable anguish, as being currently and repeatedly
published in the national media, the 'scrapping and squabbling' of Jathedars. It
is a great fall from titan of titans, the legendary Jathedar Akali Phuja Singh.
It is for the Sangat to take charge and restore our hallowed traditions and institutions
to their pristine glory.
As Bhai Kahan Singh could not devote adequate time to his studies and Panthic services,
he resigned from the State service. The crowning achievement of Bhai Sahib is his
magnum opus the Mahan Kosh or the Encyclopedia of Sikh Literature. He undertook
this stupendous task in 1912 and completed it in 1927. It was published by Durbar
Patiala on the instructions of Maharaja Bhupindra Singh in four magnificent volumes
in 1930. It contains 64263 words occurring in original Sikh scriptures as well as
other allied works. Exemplary accuracy marks multitude of entries ranging from brief
definitions of difficult works from the scriptures and traditions through descriptive
notes on various entries, individuals and institutions, to account of the Gurus.
It gives careful treatment of terminology, which had dropped out of usage or had
changed its meaning. Mahan Kosh is indispensable for any serious student of Sikh
studies. Hs qualities are undimmed by 80 years which have passed since it first
appeared in print. Undertaken and carried out single handed, it is nothing short
of a miracle. Bhai Kahan Singh ranks as one of the modern world's greatest encyclopaedists.
This is the 12th encyclopedia published in the world. The fact that he chose to
present all his works in Gurmukhi has limited his contribution to those who read
Punjabi, although his reputation extends much farther, It is largely confined to
the general area of Sikh studies. His work is distinguished by the vast range of
coverage, the meticulous care with which he collected and arranged his material,
a scrupulous concern for accuracy and the succinct nature of his presentation. These
are the qualities of great encyclopedias and their manifest presence in the works
of Bhai Kahan Singh qualifies him as one of the truly great theologians.
The Punjabi University at Patiala has now undertaken to translate the Mahan Kosh
into English. This will expose the encyclopedia to a much larger readership.
Bhai Sahib was a widely travelled man. He visited England and Europe thrice. Once
he went to represent the Nabha State in a legal case in England where he contested
the case very successfully. The Afghan King Nadir Shah welcomed him when he visited
Afghanistan for research in Sikh history and to ascertain whether the original copy
of the Guru Granth Sahib, written by Bhai Mani Singh Ji, at Damdama Sahib was in
Kabul. It was said that Ahmed Shah Abdali had taken it with him after the Great
holocaust (Bara Ghallu Ghara) of 1762. The Sir was not traceable in Kabul and was
presumed to have got destroyed during the holocaust.
He passed away during his afternoon nap on 23rd November 1938 but remains the perennial
inspiration for scholars everywhere.
Major A.P. Singh
Special Thanks to Eminent Personalities of HVC Foundation
Prof. Darshan Singh
Punjab University, Chandigarh
Prof. Harjeet Singh Ahluwalia, U.K.
Senior Adviser, HVC Foundation, Punjab, India
Some New Publications on Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha
||Yug Purush- Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha
Author : Dr. Jagmail Singh Bhathuan
Book Language : Punjabi
ARSEE PUBISHERS,CHANDNI CHOWK, DELHI-110006, Tel:+(91)-(11)-23280657
Price : 275.00
||Bikhray Moti (Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha Day Nibandh)
Edited by : Ravinder Kaur 'Ravi'
Book Languag : Punjabi
Navyug Publishers,K24,Hoaz Khas,New Delhi-110011, Tel:+(91)-(11)-26802488
Price : Rs. 150.00
Eidtor : Dr. Jagmail Singh Bhathuan
Book Language : Punjabi
National Book Shop,32-B, Pleasure Grd Mkt,Nr Gauri Shankar Mandir,Opp Moti Cinema, Chandni Chowk, Delhi – 110006, Tel:+(91)-(11)-23264342
Price : Rs. 150.00
Audio CD 'NIRMAL-PANTH' Prepared by Dr. Jagmail Singh Bhathuan & Ravinder Kaur Ravi,
Based on Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha's Composition, Poetry & Song's